Supplementary Material for: A Double-Blind Randomised Controlled Trial of Fish Oil-Based versus Soy-Based Lipid Preparations in the Treatment of Infants with Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis

Background: Infants receiving prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) are at risk of PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC). This can progress to hepatic failure and death if PN cannot be discontinued. Fish oil-based parenteral lipid preparation (FOLP) has been shown to be beneficial in case studies. Objectives: (1) To evaluate whether FOLP could halt or reverse the progression of PNAC compared with soy-based parenteral lipid preparation (SLP) and (2) to assess the effects of FOLP on liver function and physical growth. Methods: Design: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Setting: level III neonatal intensive care unit. Participants: infants with PNAC (plasma-conjugated bilirubin concentration ≥34 µmol/l or 2 mg/dl) expected to be PN-dependent for >2 weeks. Intervention: to receive either FOLP or SLP at 1.5 g/kg/day. Primary outcome measure: reversal of PNAC within 4 months after commencement of lipid treatment; secondary outcomes: rate of change of weekly liver function tests, infant growth parameters, blood lipid profile and episodes of late-onset sepsis. Results: A total of 9 infants were randomised to the FOLP group and 7 to the SLP group. There was no significant difference in reversal of PNAC at 4 months between groups. Rates of increase of plasma-conjugated bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in the SLP group were significantly greater than the FOLP group (13.5 vs. 0.6 µmol/l per week and 9.1 vs. 1.1 IU/l per week, respectively, p = 0.03). Increased enteral nutrition was associated with significant improvement of PNAC in infants receiving FOLP compared with SLP (-8.5 vs. -1.6 µmol/l per 10% increase in enteral nutrition, respectively). The study was terminated prematurely. Conclusions: progression of PNAC in PN-dependent infants can be halted by replacing SLP with FOLP and reversed by increasing the proportion of enteral nutrition in infants receiving FOLP. Replacement of SLP with FOLP in PN-dependent infants who develop PNAC may be considered.