Supplementary Material for: A MAVS/TICAM-1-Independent Interferon-Inducing Pathway Contributes to Regulation of Hepatitis B Virus Replication in the Mouse Hydrodynamic Injection Model

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic RNA sensors have been reported to be involved in the regulation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, but remain controversial due to the lack of a natural infectious model. Our current study sets out to characterize aspects of the role of the innate immune system in eliminating HBV using hydrodynamic-based injection of HBV replicative plasmid and knockout mice deficient in specific pathways of the innate system. The evidence indicated that viral replication was not affected by MAVS or TICAM-1 knockout, but absence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 transcription factors, as well as the interferon (IFN) receptor, had an adverse effect on the inhibition of HBV replication, demonstrating the dispensability of MAVS and TICAM-1 pathways in the early innate response against HBV. Myd88-/- mice did not have a significant increase in the initial viremia, but substantial viral antigen persisted in the mice sera, a response similar to Rag2-/- mice, suggesting that the MyD88-dependent pathway participated in evoking an adaptive immune response against the clearance of intrahepatic HBV. Taken together, we show that the RNA-sensing pathways do not participate in the regulation of HBV replication in a mouse model; meanwhile MyD88 is implicated in the HBV clearance.