Supplementary Material for: A Serine Protease Homolog Negatively Regulates TEP1 Consumption in Systemic Infections of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae
2014-07-08T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Clip domain serine protease homologs are widely distributed in insect genomes and play important roles in regulating insect immune responses, yet their exact functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that CLIPA2, a clip domain serine protease homolog of Anopheles gambiae, regulates the consumption of the mosquito complement-like protein TEP1 during systemic bacterial infections. We provide evidence that CLIPA2 localizes to microbial surfaces in a TEP1-dependent manner whereby it negatively regulates the activity of a putative TEP1 convertase, which converts the full-length TEP1-F form into active TEP1cut. CLIPA2 silencing triggers an exacerbated TEP1-mediated response that significantly enhances mosquito resistance to infections with a broad class of microorganisms including Plasmodium berghei, Escherichia coli and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We also provide further evidence for the existence of a functional link between TEP1 and activation of hemolymph prophenoloxidase during systemic infections. Interestingly, the enhanced TEP1-mediated immune response in CLIPA2 knockdown mosquitoes correlated with a significant reduction in fecundity, corroborating the existence of a trade-off between immunity and reproduction. In sum, CLIPA2 is an integral regulatory component of the mosquito complement-like pathway which functions to prevent an overwhelming response by the host in response to systemic infections.