Supplementary Material for: Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPARδ, attenuated Ang II-induced activation of MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. GW501516 also inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs treated with Ang II. A marked increase in the mRNA levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and -3, endogenous antagonists of MMPs, was also observed in GW501516-treated VSMCs. These effects were markedly reduced in the presence of siRNAs against PPARδ, indicating that the effects of GW501516 are PPARδ dependent. Among the protein kinases inhibited by GW501516, suppression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling was shown to have the greatest effect on activation of MMP-2 in VSMCs treated with Ang II. Concomitantly, GW501516-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activation in VSMCs treated with Ang II was associated with the suppression of cell migration to levels approaching those in cells not exposed to Ang II. Thus, activation of PPARδ confers resistance to Ang II-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix by upregulating expression of its endogenous inhibitor TIMP and thereby modulating cellular responses to Ang II in vascular cells.