Supplementary Material for: Alterations in Monocyte Phenotypes and Functions after a Hip Fracture in Elderly Individuals: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study
2016-01-27T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Background: Healthy elderly individuals are particularly prone to catastrophic events at any moment of their lives. One stressful event for individuals aged 65 and older is a fall that results in a fracture of the hip (HF). HF causes a state of inflammation that may affect immune responses. In this connection, we have reported that HF induced alterations in neutrophil functions. Objective: To assess the impact of HF on classical (cM), intermediate (iM) and non-classical (ncM) monocyte subsets. Methods: Distribution, functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, superoxide production and cytokine production), phenotype and activation (NF-κB and PI3K) were evaluated in monocyte subsets before surgery and 6 weeks and 6 months after the event. Results: The distribution of cM and ncM was unchanged, but iM transiently increased before surgery. Sustained increases (iM response to CCL2 and CX3CL1) and decreases (cM and ncM response to CCL2) in chemotaxis were observed. Phagocytosis and superoxide production were impaired in cM but not in iM or ncM. Sustained expression of HLA-DR occurred in cM but not in iM and ncM. Sustained decreased expression of CD11b occurred only in ncM. Sustained decreases (cM and ncM) and increases (iM) in CCR2 expression were observed. An elevated expression of CX3CR1 was found only in iM. cM produced elevated quantities of TNFα. There was a transient oxidative burst of production before surgery in iM and a sustained decrease in ncM. IL-10 production was severely impaired in cM and decreased in iM prior to surgery. Sustained activation (cM), inhibition (ncM) and transient activation (iM) of NF-κB were observed. Activation of PI3K was severely impaired in cM and ncM but was sustained in iM. Conclusion: HF had more impact on cM and ncM functions than on iM. HF triggered a switch in cM functions from phagocytic to inflammatory elevated TNFα-producing cells. These changes may impact clinical outcomes of HF with respect to inflammation, opportunistic infections and physical recovery.