Supplementary Material for: Analysis of the Complete Genomes of Acholeplasma brassicae, A. palmae and A. laidlawii and Their Comparison to the Obligate Parasites from ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma'

Analysis of the completely determined genomes of the plant-derived Acholeplasma brassicae strain O502 and A. palmae strain J233 revealed that the circular chromosomes are 1,877,792 and 1,554,229 bp in size, have a G + C content of 36 and 29%, and encode 1,690 and 1,439 proteins, respectively. Comparative analysis of these sequences and previously published genomes of A. laidlawii strain PG-8, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' strains, ‘Ca. P. australiense' and ‘Ca. P. mali' show a limited shared basic genetic repertoire. The acholeplasma genomes are characterized by a low number of rearrangements, duplication and integration events. Exceptions are the unusual duplication of rRNA operons in A. brassicae and an independently introduced second gene for a single-stranded binding protein in both genera. In contrast to phytoplasmas, the acholeplasma genomes differ by encoding the cell division protein FtsZ, a wide variety of ABC transporters, the F₀F1 ATP synthase, the Rnf-complex, SecG of the Sec-dependent secretion system, a richly equipped repertoire for carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid, isoprenoid and partial amino acid metabolism. Conserved metabolic proteins encoded in phytoplasma genomes such as the malate dehydrogenase SfcA, several transporters and proteins involved in host-interaction, and virulence-associated effectors were not predicted for the acholeplasmas.