Supplementary Material for: Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule and Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis Stimulation for Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adolescence: A Case of Success

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurobehavioral disorder comprising motor and vocal tics. In most cases it is associated with other disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In refractory cases deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a valid treatment option. This paper describes the case of a 15-year-old adolescent with an extremely refractory GTS with associated OCD. The patient developed catatonia associated with OCD, which partially remitted after electroconvulsive therapy. At the peak of the disease the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) was 100 and the patient required sedation and intubation. All medical treatment options were unsuccessful. Bilateral DBS of the anterior limb of internal capsule (ALIC)/bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) region was performed, using a target below the BST and a trajectory through the ALIC, with stimulation of contacts 0 and 3. Two weeks after surgery sedatives were suspended and the patient was successfully extubated. One year after surgery the patient reached a YGTSS of 19, representing an 81% improvement. OCD completely resolved. Adverse events were a superficial infection and weight gain. In conclusion, this ALIC/BST stimulation appears to have been an effective and safe treatment for GTS with OCD in this case. Young age should not be an exclusion criterion for DBS in severe GTS and OCD. Further studies should be pursued for this target.