Supplementary Material for: Anti-Caries Effect of Arginine-Containing Formulations in vivo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
2015-11-05T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
<b><i>Objective:</i></b> To assess the anti-caries effect of arginine-containing formulations in vivo on caries lesions compared with fluorides or placebo. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Randomized or quasi-randomized human clinical trials wherein arginine was delivered by any method were considered. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched to identify relevant articles published up to December 2014. Grey literature was also searched. Two authors performed data extraction independently and in duplicate using data collection forms. Each included study was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Of the 470 studies screened, 31 full articles were scrutinized and assessed for eligibility. Ten studies (n = 15,546 participants) were selected for final inclusion. The meta-analysis results (n = 7 studies) demonstrated a synergistic effect of arginine when used in conjunction with fluoride on early coronal and root caries compared with placebo or fluoride alone. No specific side effects related to arginine usage were identified. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> When used in combination with a calcium compound and fluoride, arginine potentially provides a superior anti-caries effect compared with matched formulations of fluoride alone. However, the level of evidence was downgraded because of risks of bias and potential publication bias. In the future, more high quality, non-industry-supported clinical studies in this research area are required before any definitive recommendations can be made.