Supplementary Material for: Association between Atopic Dermatitis and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review

Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be associated with the metabolic syndrome and by that carry an increased risk of cardio­vascular disease. Our objective was to provide an update on current knowledge of the association between AD and metabolic syndrome, including each component of the metabolic syndrome. A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies investigating the association between metabolic syndrome and AD from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 14 studies, investigating the association between AD and the metabolic syndrome or AD and components of metabolic syndrome fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. It seems unlikely that the association between AD and metabolic syndrome is causal. However, women with AD tended to have components of metabolic syndrome more often than women without AD. There was a positive association between AD and central obesity measured as waist circumference, and this association was stronger for women than men. Despite conflicting results regarding hypertension, the association between hypertension and AD also appeared stronger for women. On the other hand, the association between AD and hyperglycemia appears unlikely, and the association between AD and cholesterol levels was inconsistent. In conclusion, it remains unclear whether AD is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and its components. However, data indicate that central obesity is associated with AD and that the association is stronger for women than men.