Supplementary Material for: Association of Four Genetic Loci with Uric Acid Levels and Reduced Renal Function: The J-SHIPP Suita Study

Background: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants as susceptibility loci for serum uric acid (UA) levels. We also identified a common nonsense mutation, W258X, responsible for renal hypouricemia. Here, we investigated clinical implications of these genetic variants by cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic epidemiological analysis. Methods: The study enrolled 5,165 Japanese subjects aged 64 ± 12 years from the general population. Clinical parameters were obtained from the personal health records, evaluated at medical checkups. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly different between the SLC22A12 rs11231825 (CC/CT/TT: 4.5 ± 1.6, 5.0 ± 1.4, 5.3 ± 1.4 mg/dl; p = 7.6 × 10–20), SLC2A9 rs1014290 (TT/TG/GG: 4.9 ± 1.4, 5.1 ± 1.4, 5.3 ± 1.4 mg/dl; p = 3.1 × 10–11) and ABCG2 rs2231142 (TT/TG/GG: 5.3 ± 1.5, 5.2 ± 1.4, 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dl; p = 2.0 × 10–5) genotypes. During 9.4 years of follow-up, 87 new cases of hyperuricemia were diagnosed. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the accumulation of risk alleles as a significant determinant of future development of hyperuricemia (OR = 7.94; 95% CI: 1.97–53.6). In contrast, subjects with nonsense mutation predominantly showed lower UA levels (XX/XW/WW: 1.3 ± 1.7, 3.6 ± 1.0, 5.2 ± 1.4 mg/dl; p = 9.3 × 10–82). However, these subjects showed significantly reduced renal function (β = –0.111; p < 0.001) independently of possible covariates. Conclusion: Accumulation of risk genotypes was an independent risk factor for future development of hyperuricemia. Genetically developed hypouricemia was an independent risk factor for decreased renal function.