Supplementary Material for: Association of Mild Kidney Dysfunction with Silent Brain Lesions in Neurologically Normal Subjects

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been closely associated with stroke. Although a large number of studies reported the relationship between CKD and different types of asymptomatic brain lesions, few comprehensive analyses have been performed for all types of silent brain lesions. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study involving 1,937 neurologically normal subjects (mean age 59.4 years). Mild CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or positive proteinuria. Results: The prevalence of mild CKD was 8.7%. Univariate analysis revealed an association between CKD and all silent brain lesions, including silent brain infarction, periventricular hyperintensity, subcortical white matter lesion, and microbleeds, in addition to hypertension and diabetes mellitus after adjusting for age and sex. In binary logistic regression analysis, the presence of CKD was a significant risk factor for all types of silent brain lesions, independent of other risk factors. Conclusions: These results suggest that mild CKD is independently associated with all types of silent brain lesions, even in neurologically normal subjects.