Supplementary Material for: Association of Ultrafiltration Rate with Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients

Background/Aims: Ultrafiltration rate (UFR) appears to be associated with mortality in prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the association of UFR with mortality in incident HD patients remains unknown. Methods: We examined a US cohort of 110,880 patients who initiated HD from 2007 to 2011. Baseline UFR was divided into 5 groups (<4, 4 to <6, 6 to <8, 8 to <10, and ≥10 mL/h/kg body weight [BW]). We examined predictors of higher baseline UFR using logistic regression and the association of baseline UFR and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for demographics, comorbidities, and markers of malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome. Results: Patients were 63 ± 15 years, with 43% women, 32% African Americans, and had a mean baseline UFR of 7.5 ± 3.1 mL/h/kg BW. In the fully adjusted logistic regression models, factors associated with higher UFR (≥7.5 mL/h/kg BW) included Hispanic ethnicity, diabetes, and higher dietary protein intake. There was a linear association between UFR and all-cause and CV mortality, where UFR ≥10 mL/h/kg BW (reference UFR 6–<8 mL/h/kg BW) conferred the highest risk in both unadjusted (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.10–1.19]) and adjusted models (HR 1.23 [95% CI 1.16–1.31]). The linear association with all-cause mortality remained consistent across strata of age, urine volume, and treatment time. Conclusions: Higher UFR is independently associated with higher all-cause and CV mortality in incident HD patients. Clinical trials are warranted to examine the effects of lowering UFR on outcomes.