Supplementary Material for: B-Cell Receptor-Associated Protein 31 Regulates the Expression of Valosin-Containing Protein Through Elf2

Background/Aims: B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed, polytopic integral membrane protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is involved in the regulation of apoptosis, protein transport and degradation. Patients with Bap31 mutations exhibit symptoms similar to those exhibited by patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as deafness, dystonia, and intellectual disability. The present study aimed to investigate the function of Bap31 in CNS diseases by identifying a CNS disease-related gene regulated by Bap31 and exploring the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: ShRNA-Bap31 and siRNA-Bap31 were used to knockdown Bap31 in N2a cells, and real-time PCR was performed to detect the mRNA levels of genes involved in CNS diseases. Western blot analyses were used to examine the protein levels of the candidate gene (valosin-containing protein, VCP) both in vivo and in vitro. The functions of Bap31 and VCP in mediating the degradation of the hyper-unstable mutant of cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTRΔF508) were studied. Moreover, real-time PCR, Western blot and dual luciferase reporter analyses were conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism by which Bap31 regulates the expression levels of VCP. Results: VCP was identified as a candidate gene based on its differential expression in N2a cells following both shRNA- and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Bap31. Both the mRNA and protein levels of VCP were regulated by Bap31 in vivo and in vitro. In the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, Bap31 also regulated VCP expression and caused differences in the binding quantities of CFTRΔF508 and VCP. Furthermore, a transcription factor of VCP (E74-like factor 2, Elf2) was regulated by Bap31, and Elf2 mediated the changes in VCP transcription and expression in cells with altered Bap31 expression. Conclusion: These results indicate that Bap31 regulates the expression of VCP possibly via Elf2 and support the potential molecular function of Bap31 in CNS diseases.



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