Supplementary Material for: Biofilm Formation Restrained by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Tigecyclin in Acinetobacter baumannii Is Associated with Downregulation of Efflux Pumps

Background: Tigecycline, one of the few therapeutic options against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, reaches subinhibitory serum concentrations only with cautious clinical dosing and pharmacokinetics. Subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline might induce an A. baumannii biofilm. Methods: Biofilm formation was assessed via the crystal violet staining method. We further analyzed the main biofilm components with NaIO4, proteinase K, and DNase. Real-time RT-PCR was applied for quantitative detection of biofilm potential-associated genes. Results: In this study, A. baumannii proved to be a strong biofilm producer, and we found that proteins and extracellular DNA are crucial components of the A. baumannii biofilm. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed positive correlations between biofilm formation restrained by subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline and the expression of biofilm potential-associated genes, especially the AdeFGH efflux pump gene. Conclusion: Our results suggest that downregulation of efflux pumps, especially the AdeFGH efflux pump, is probably responsible for the decline in biofilm formation in A. baumannii treated with subinhibitory concentrations of tigecyclin.