Supplementary Material for: Biventricular Rupture with Extracardiac Left-to-Right Shunt Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

2016-05-10T15:14:06Z (GMT) by Sergey Yalonetsky Doron Aronson
Background: Simultaneous rupture of the left and right ventricles is an extremely rare mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). When associated with the formation of a false aneurysm, an extracardiac left-to-right shunt may occur. Methods: We summarized all published data describing this unique condition. We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for case reports in peer-reviewed journals from 1 January 1980 to 1 May 2015. We identified 16 articles describing 17 cases. Results: In all but 1 case, biventricular wall rupture (BVWR) resulted from an inferior MI. The clinical presentations of BVWR were variable and included cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure and an absence of any cardiac symptoms. In most cases, there was a hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunt, with pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) >2. Diagnostic difficulties were reported in most cases, and some patients were initially misdiagnosed as having ventricular septal rupture (VSR). Surgical closure of the defect was successful in most cases, and some asymptomatic patients were managed conservatively. Conclusion: BVWR with an intact interventricular septum and extracardiac left-to-right shunt is a rare mechanical complication of acute MI, often misdiagnosed as VSR. It has a variable clinical course, probably related to the magnitude of the shunt.