Supplementary Material for: Blood Pressure and Cognitive Decline in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

Background: Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in the general population. It is unclear what impact blood pressure (BP) has on cognitive decline in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of 314 prevalent HD patients without dementia at baseline, we examined the association of predialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure, and intradialytic SBP change (pre minus post), averaged for a month, with cognitive decline. Cognitive function was determined by a neurocognitive battery, administered yearly. Individual cognitive test results were reduced into 2 domain scores using principal components analysis (by definition mean of 0 and SD of 1), representing memory and executive function. Joint models, allowing for characterization of cognitive score slopes and including adjustment for potential confounders, were utilized to account for competing risks from death, dropout, or kidney transplantation. Results: Mean age was 62 years; 54% were men, 23% were black, and 90% had at least a high school education. During median follow-up of 2.1 years (25th–75th: 1.0–4.5), 191 had at least one follow-up test, 148 died, and 43 received kidney transplants. Low predialysis DBP and high pulse pressure were both associated with steeper executive function decline (each 10 mm Hg lower DBP = –0.03 SD [–0.01 to –0.05] per year steeper decline) in executive function (each 10 mm Hg higher pulse pressure = –0.03 SD [–0.06 to –0.01] steeper decline) but not for memory function. SBP and intradialytic change were not associated with steeper decline for either memory or executive function. Conclusions: No relationship was seen between SBP or intradialytic change in BP with cognitive decline. In prevalent HD patients, lower predialysis DBP and wider predialysis pulse pressure are associated with steeper cognitive decline in executive function but not memory.