Supplementary Material for: Caries and Innate Immunity: DEFB1 Gene Polymorphisms and Caries Susceptibility in Genetic Isolates from North-Eastern Italy

Background: The DEFB1 gene, encoding for the constitutively expressed human β-defensin 1 (hBD1) antimicrobial peptide is a potential candidate when studying genetic susceptibility to caries. DEFB1 genetic variations have been reported as contributing to hBD1 production impairment, leading to a greater susceptibility to be infected by oral pathogens, also leading to periodontitis. Methods: We analysed 5 DEFB1 polymorphisms, namely 3 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR), -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), and -20G>A (rs11362), 2 SNPs at the 3′-UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031) and c*87A>G (rs1800971) SNP located in potential miRNA binding sites, looking for possible correlations with the risk to develop caries in 654 adult subjects from isolated populations of north-eastern Italy. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated with the DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) index, calculated after an accurate oral examination. DEFB1 SNP genotyping was performed with an Illumina 370k high-density SNP array. Results: Two DEFB1 SNPs were significantly associated with the DMFT index: the strongest association emerged from rs11362 SNP (p = 0.008). In particular G/G homozygous individuals showed a higher DMFT index compared to both G/A heterozygous and A/A homozygous individuals; rs1799946 SNP was also significantly associated with DMFT (p = 0.030), and individuals homozygous for the T allele had a higher DMFT value compared to heterozygous C/T and homozygous C/C individuals. Conclusions: Our study replicated, on a larger number of individuals, previous findings showing the association between two 5′-UTR SNPs in the DEFB1 gene and DMFT, suggesting that these polymorphisms could be considered as potential markers for assessing the risk to develop caries.