Supplementary Material for: Cellular Immune Response Involving Multinucleated Giant Hemocytes with Two-Step Genome Amplification in the Drosophilid Zaprionus indianus
2019-09-25T07:38:05Z (GMT) by
Previously, a novel cell type, the multinucleated giant hemocyte (MGH) was identified in the ananassae subgroup of Drosophilidae. These cells share several features with mammalian multinucleated giant cells, a syncytium of macrophages formed during granulomatous inflammation. We were able to show that MGHs also differentiate in Zaprionus indianus, an invasive species belonging to the vittiger subgroup of the family, highly resistant to a large number of parasitoid wasp species. We have classified the MGHs of Z. indianusas giant hemocytes belonging to a class of cells which also include elongated blood cells carrying a single nucleus and anuclear structures. They are involved in encapsulating parasites, originate from the lymph gland, can develop by cell fusion, and generally carry many nuclei, while possessing an elaborated system of canals and sinuses, resulting in a spongiform appearance. Their nuclei are all transcriptionally active and show accretion of genetic material. Multinucleation and accumulation of the genetic material in the giant hemocytes represents a two-stage amplification of the genome, while their spongy ultrastructure substantially increases the contact surface with the extracellular space. These features may furnish the giant hemocytes with a considerable metabolic advantage, hence contributing to the mechanism of the effective immune response.