Supplementary Material for: Chronic Maternal Hyperoxygenation and Effect on Cerebral and Placental Vasoregulation and Neurodevelopment in Fetuses with Left Heart Hypoplasia

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> In a pilot study of chronic maternal hyperoxygenation (CMH) in left heart hypoplasia (LHH), we sought to determine effect estimates of CMH on head size, vascular resistance indices, and neurodevelopment compared to controls. <b><i>Material and Methods:</i></b> Nine gravidae meeting the inclusion criteria (fetal LHH, ≥25.9 weeks’ gestation, and ≥10% increase in percent aortic flow after acute hyperoxygenation) were prospectively enrolled. Controls were 9 contemporary gravidae with fetal LHH without CMH. Brain growth and Doppler-derived estimates of fetal cerebrovascular and placental resistance were blindly evaluated and compared using longitudinal regression. Postnatal anthropomorphic and neurodevelopmental assessments were compared. <b><i>Results:</i></b> There was no difference in baseline fetal measures between groups. There was significantly slower biparietal diameter (BPD) growth in the CMH group (<i>z</i>-score change –0.03 ± 0.02 vs. +0.09 ± 0.05 units/week, <i>p</i> = 0.02). At 6 months postnatal age, the mean head circumference <i>z</i>-score in the CMH group was smaller than that of controls (–0.20 ± 0.58 vs. +0.85 ± 1.11, <i>p</i> = 0.048). There were no differences in neurodevelopmental testing at 6 and 12 months. <b><i>Discussion:</i></b> In this pilot study, relatively diminished fetal BPD growth and smaller infant head circumference <i>z</i>-scores at 6 months were noted with in utero CMH exposure.