Supplementary Material for: Cognitive Impairment and Its Structural Correlates in the Parkinsonian Subtype of Multiple System Atrophy

Background/Aims: Previous studies indicate that patients with the parkinsonian subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) experience cognitive impairment. This study aimed to identify the existence of cognitive impairments and the different topographic patterns of morphological changes in MSA-P by means of imaging analysis, and also whether these morphological changes could be associated with cognitive dysfunctions in MSA-P. Methods: We recruited 15 nondemented probable MSA-P patients and 32 normal controls (NC) for neuropsychological testing and MRI. We analyzed morphological changes using cortical thickness analysis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and cerebellar volumetry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation of each cognitive score with the mean thickness of significant cortical-thinning clusters, mean gray-matter density of VBM clusters and cerebellar volume. Results: The scores on the Digit Span Test, the Seoul Verbal Learning Test (immediate and delayed), the phonemic Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the Stroop color test were significantly lower in the MSA-P group than in the NC group. We found two clusters exhibiting significant cortical thinning in the right paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. VBM analysis revealed significant gray-matter atrophy in the MSA-P group in the bilateral basal ganglia, cerebellum and temporal and frontal cortical areas. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that cognitive dysfunction correlated significantly with thinning in the neocortex, cerebellum and striatum. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that cortical and cerebellar atrophy and striatal degeneration are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with MSA-P.