Supplementary Material for: Comparative Effects of Topical 0.2% Sirolimus for Angiofibromas in Adults and Pediatric Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Background: Recent reports have suggested that the topical formulation of sirolimus is effective in treating facial angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Here, we determined the safety and efficacy of 0.2% topical sirolimus for the treatment of facial angiofibroma and compared its effects based on age. Method: This was a retrospective study which involved 36 TSC patients with facial angiofibromas who were treated with 0.2% sirolimus ointment. Its effect was evaluated using the Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI). In order to observe its comparative effect based on patient age, a subgroup analysis was performed, between the adult group (> 18 years old) and the pediatric group (≤18 years old). Results: The total FASI as well as its subcategories (erythema, size, and extent) showed statistically significant improvements after the topical treatment with 0.2% sirolimus ointment (FASI before treatment: 7.2 ± 1.1, FASI after treatment: 4.4± 1.4, p < 0.001). Among the subcategories of FASI, the erythema was most significantly reduced with the fastest response to the treatment. In a subgroup analysis, the pediatric group showed significantly greater improvements in FASI (improvement of FASI in the pediatric group = 49.7 ± 12.2%, adult group = 27.9 ± 15.6%, p < 0.001). The serial improvement analysis also showed that the pediatric group achieved a consistently greater improvement in FASI at all visits. Its 1-year application in 3 patients demonstrated a continuous maintenance effect. No significant adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: 0.2% sirolimus ointment is safe and effective for facial angiofibromas. Considering its higher efficacy in younger patients, an early initiation of the treatment is recommended.