Supplementary Material for: Daily Supplementation with 4000 IU Vitamin D3 for Three Years Does Not Modify Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure: The Effect of Vitamin D on Mortality in Heart Failure Trial

Background/Aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of a moderately high vitamin D dose on lipid parameters and biochemical markers of vascular calcification (VC) in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Methods: We included in this pre-specified secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial 161 patients with advanced heart failure and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations < 75 nmol/L (vitamin D group: n = 80; placebo group: n = 81), who received a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 4,000 IU for 3 years. We assessed between-group differences of the lipid parameters total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and the VC markers fetuin-A and non-phosphorylated undercarboxylated matrix gla protein (MGP) at study termination, with adjustment for baseline values. Results: Lipid parameters, the percentage of patients with dyslipoproteinemia, and VC markers did not differ significantly between groups at study termination (p values: 0.395–0.939). Likewise, vitamin D achieved no significant treatment effect on these markers in subgroup analyses in patients with 25OHD concentrations < 30 nmol/L, nonusers of lipid-lowering drugs, or diabetic patients (p values: 0.245–0.998). Conclusion: Our data indicate that vitamin D does not improve the lipid profile and does not influence the calcification inhibitors fetuin-A and non-phosphorylated undercarboxylated MGP in patients with advanced heart failure.