Supplementary Material for: Determinants of Functional Independence or Its Loss following Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

Objective: This study aimed to describe the change in functional status following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to identify predictors of postoperative functional dependence. Methods: We included PD patients with bilateral STN-DBS who had complete Schwab & England Activities of Daily Living (S&E ADL) Scale data at baseline and 6 months after surgery from our prospective registry. Functional dependence was defined as an S&E ADL score of less than 80%. All data were collected from the on-medication state and on-stimulation state (after surgery). Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors predictive of functional dependence after surgery. Results: A total of 196 patients were included. At baseline, 41 patients were functionally dependent and the other 155 were functionally independent. Among the patients with preoperative dependence, 32 (78%) became functionally independent after surgery, and this conversion was associated with a lower baseline axial score (p = 0.012). Among the patients with preoperative independence, 21 (14%) developed postoperative dependence, and this conversion was associated with a higher baseline axial score (p = 0.013) and its smaller improvement (p < 0.001). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.214; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.210–8.542; p = 0.019) and a higher baseline axial score (OR 1.184; 95% CI 1.056–1.327; p = 0.004) significantly predicted the risk of postoperative functional dependence. Conclusions: We found that functional status following bilateral STN-DBS is closely related to preoperative axial symptoms. When loss of independence is a potential target for STN-DBS, clinicians should take into consideration the severity of axial impairment before surgery.