Supplementary Material for: Dietary Vitamin A and Visceral Adiposity: A Modulating Role of the Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Gene

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Visceral fat (VF) compared with subcutaneous fat (SF) is more closely associated with cardiometabolic disease. Dietary vitamin A (retinol) may reduce adiposity through its effects on adipogenesis differentially in VF and SF, and this effect may be modulated by retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4). We investigated whether intake of vitamin A is associated with either VF or SF, and whether this association is moderated by the RBP4 genotype (rs10882272, C/T) previously associated with circulating retinol levels. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This was a cross-sectional association study in a sample of 947 adolescents from a French-Canadian founder population. VF and SF were quantified with magnetic resonance imaging, and vitamin A intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall. All participants were genotyped to determine their <i>RBP4</i> variant. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Dietary intake of vitamin A was negatively associated with VF; however, it was not associated with SF. These relationships were independent of age, sex, height and energy intake, and were modulated by the <i>RBP4 </i>variant. The T allele promoted adiposity-<i>reducing</i> effects of vitamin A in VF and adiposity-<i>enhancing</i> effects in SF, while the C allele had adiposity-<i>reducing</i> effects in both VF and SF. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Dietary vitamin A may reduce abdominal adiposity and promote visceral to subcutaneous body fat redistribution during adolescence in an RBP4-dependent manner. These observational findings provide the basis for future interventional studies, which together with genetic information may inject further causality in the association between dietary vitamin A intake and abdominal adiposity.