Supplementary Material for: Distinctive and Pervasive Alterations of Functional Brain Networks in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease with and without Cognitive Impairment

Objective: To explore the within- and between-network patterns of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal control network (FPCN), and the dorsal attention network (DAN) in cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with and without cognitive impairment (CI). Methods: Twenty CSVD with CI subjects, 21 CSVD without CI subjects, and 25 healthy elderly controls were recruited. The within- and between-network patterns of the networks were identified based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Results: Compared with the control group, both the CSVD with CI group and the CSVD without CI group displayed decreased within-network function of the DMN and lower negative connectivity between the DMN and other networks (i.e., DMN and DAN, DMN and FPCN), whereas the CSVD with CI group additionally showed within- and between-network alterations of the FPCN (i.e., increased within-network function of the FPCN and lower negative connectivity between the FPCN and the DMN). Furthermore, these alterations of the FPCN were correlated with the cognitive function of CSVD subjects. Interestingly, the between-network connectivity of the FPCN and the DMN was negatively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) volume in CSVD subjects. Conclusion: These findings suggest that cognitive alterations of CSVD subjects may be mainly regulated by the FPCN that correlates with DWMH burden, and shed light on the investigation of surrogate markers of CSVD.