Supplementary Material for: Dry Fasting Physiology: Responses to Hypovolemia and Hypertonicity

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a deeper insight into dry fasting (DF) physiology. Design: Ten participants performed DF for 5 consecutive days. Methods: The following parameters were monitored daily: cortisol, aldosterone, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), erythropoietin, albumin, uric acid, and vitamin C in serum; vasopressin (ADH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), renin, angiotensin II, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma; hematocrit and erythrocytes in whole blood; osmolality, noradrenaline, dopamine, adrenaline, Na+, and K+ in 24-h urine; waist circumference and body, urine, and stool weight. Results: The following parameters increased: ADH (60 ± 11%), ACTH (176 ± 34%), cortisol (495 ± 75%), urine osmolality (20 ± 4%), CRP (167 ± 77%), renin (315 ± 63%), angiotensin II (74 ± 21%), aldosterone (61 ± 21%), TAC (80.4 ± 17%), uric acid (103 ± 19%), albumin (18.4 ± 2.4%), erythrocytes (13.4 ± 2.2%), hematocrit (11 ± 1.8%), and the excretion of noradrenaline (40.3 ± 10%) and dopamine (17 ± 5%). The following parameters decreased: waist circumference (8.20 ± 0.61 cm), body weight (7.010 ± 0.3 kg), erythropoietin (65 ± 18%), and the excretion of adrenaline (38 ± 4%) and Na+ (60 ± 16%). The excretion of K+ remained unchanged. Vitamin C decreased, showing a half-life of 4.8 ± 0.7 days. The percent ratios of lost weight components were: urine (52.2 ± 3.7%), insensible water loss (32.2 ± 1.4%), stool (5 ± 0.3%), and respiratory gases, i.e., expired CO2 – incorporated O2 (10.6 ± 5.4%). Conclusion: The mechanisms underlying the hypertonicity and hypovolemia compensation and the ratio analysis of lost weight components were presented. DF demonstrated short-term antioxidant, anti-ischemic, immune-stimulating, anti-edematous, and anti-inflammatory effects. The results may have an impact on developing new concepts for the treatment of edema, obesity, and inflammatory and ischemic diseases.