Supplementary Material for: Dysregulated Network of Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Markers is Associated to More Severe Human Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy

Individuals who are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is a complication involving a series of immune pathogenetic mechanisms, although an association between immune and metabolic alterations was more recently proposed. Accordingly, we investigated the immuno-metabolic response in chagasic patients and their possible influence on CCC pathogenesis. To this end, T. cruzi-seropositive (asymptomatic or with CCC) and sero-negative individuals were studied. Serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, adipocytokines and the expression of their receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) were evaluated, together with other factors influencing the immune response. CCC patients showed major metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, in parallel with increased IL-6 and leptin serum levels. TNF-α receptor s, leptin and adiponectin receptors (ObR and Adipo-Rs respectively), as well as PPAR-γ expression in PBMCs from CCC patients were compatible with a counteracting response leading to an unfavourable immune-metabolic profile. These results suggest that persistently increased levels of immune-metabolic pro-inflammatory mediators along with the adverse endocrine anti-inflammatory response of CCC individuals, may contribute to the underlying mechanisms dealing with myocardial tissue damage.