Supplementary Material for: Eculizumab Modifies Outcomes in Adults with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome with Acute Kidney Injury

Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease associated with congenital or acquired genetic abnormalities that result in uncontrolled complement activation, leading to thrombotic microangiopathy and kidney failure. Until recently, the only treatment was plasma exchange or plasma infusion (PE/PI), but 60% of patients died or had permanent kidney damage despite treatment. Eculizumab, a complement inhibitor, has shown promising results in aHUS. However, data are mainly extracted from case reports or studies of heterogeneous cohorts, and no direct comparison with PE/PI is available. Methods: An observational retrospective study of adult, dialysis-dependent aHUS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who were treated with either PE/PI alone or with second-line eculizumab in our center. We compared the effect of PE/PI and eculizumab on kidney function, hypertension, proteinuria, hematologic values, relapse, and death. Results: Thirty-one patients were included (females, 18; sporadic aHUS, 29; mean age, 46 ± 20 years). Twenty-six patients were treated with PE/PI alone, and 5 were deemed to be plasma-resistant and received eculizumab after stopping PE/PI. Among patients receiving eculizumab, 80% attained complete recovery of kidney function, 100% stopped dialysis, 20% had decreased proteinuria, and no patient relapsed (vs. 38.5, 50, 15.4, and 11.5%, respectively, of patients receiving only PE/PI). At 1-year of follow-up, no deaths had occurred in either group. Conclusion: Eculizumab shows greater efficacy than PE/PI alone for the treatment of adult aHUS patients with AKI. Prospective studies and meta-analyses are warranted to confirm our findings and set guidelines for treatment, monitoring, and maintenance.