Supplementary Material for: Effect of Type I Diabetes on the Proteome of Mouse Oocytes

Background: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. Methods: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls. Immunofluorescence analysis for the spindle and mitochondria of oocytes. Results: We found that type I diabetes severely disturbed the metabolic processes of mouse oocytes. We also observed significant changes in levels of histone H1, H2A/B, and H3 variants in diabetic oocytes (fold change: > 0.4 or < -0.4), with the potential to block activation of the zygotic genome and affect early embryo development. Furthermore, diabetic oocytes exhibited higher abnormal spindle formation and spatial remodeling of mitochondria than observed in the controls. Conclusion: Our results indicate that type I diabetes disrupts metabolic processes, spindle formation, mitochondria distribution and modulates epigenetic code in oocytes. Such effects could have a major impact on the reproductive dynamics of female patients with type I diabetes.