Supplementary Material for: Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

Aims: To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and insulin resistance. Methods: Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years) with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results: Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12). Compared to control, insulin resistance improved in the pioglitazone group (p = 0.002) but not in the exercise group (p = 0.25). There was no measureable effect of pioglitazone or exercise on cognitive performance compared to control. Conclusion: In this pilot study, pioglitazone improved insulin resistance but not cognitive performance in older adults with MCI and insulin resistance.