Supplementary Material for: Electroencephalography in Psychiatric Surgery: Past Use and Future Directions

The last two decades have seen a re-emergence of surgery for intractable psychiatric disease, in large part due to increased use of deep brain stimulation. The development of more precise, image-guided, less invasive interventions has improved the safety of these procedures, even though the relative merits of modulation at various targets remain under investigation. With an increase in the number and type of interventions for modulating mood/anxiety circuits, the need for biomarkers to guide surgeries and predict treatment response is as critical as ever. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a long history in clinical neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and functional neurosurgery, but has limited prior usage in psychiatric surgery. MEDLINE, Embase, and Psyc-INFO searches on the use of EEG in guiding psychiatric surgery yielded 611 articles, which were screened for relevance and quality. We synthesized three important themes. First, considerable evidence supports EEG as a biomarker for response to various surgical and non-surgical therapies, but large-scale investigations are lacking. Second, intraoperative EEG is likely more valuable than surface EEG for guiding target selection, but comes at the cost of greater invasiveness. Finally, EEG may be a promising tool for objective functional feedback in developing “closed-loop” psychosurgeries, but more systematic investigations are required.