Supplementary Material for: Encephalography Connectivity on Sources in Male Nonsmokers after Nicotine Administration during the Resting State

We present an encephalography (EEG) connectivity study where 30 healthy male nonsmokers were randomly allocated either to a nicotine group (14 subjects, 7 mg of transdermal nicotine) or to a placebo group. EEG activity was recorded in an eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) condition before and after drug administration. This is a reanalysis of a previous dataset. Through a source reconstruction procedure, we extracted 13 time series representing 13 sources belonging to a resting-state network. Here, we conducted connectivity analysis (renormalized partial directed coherence; rPDC) on sources, focusing on the frequency range of 8.5-18.4 Hz, subdivided into 3 frequency bands (α1, α2, and β1) with the hypothesis that an increase in vigilance would modulate connectivity. Furthermore, a phase-amplitude coupling (mean resultant vector length; VL) analysis, was performed investigating whether an increase of vigilance would modulate phase-amplitude coupling. In the VL analysis we estimated the coupling of the phases of 3 low frequencies (α1, α2, and β1), respectively, with the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations (30-40 Hz, low γ). With rPDC we found that during the EC condition, nicotine decreased feedback connectivity (from the precentral gyrus to precuneus, angular gyrus, cuneus and superior occipital gyrus) at 10.5-12.4 Hz. The VL analysis showed nicotine-induced increases in coupling at 10.5-18.4 Hz in the precuneus, cuneus and superior occipital gyrus during the EC condition. During the EO condition, no significant results were found in connectivity or phase-amplitude coupling measures at any frequency range. In conclusion, the results suggest that nicotine potentially increases the level of vigilance in the EC condition.