Supplementary Material for: Enhanced Liver Regeneration After Partial Hepatectomy in Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c-Null Mice is Associated with Increased Hepatocellular Cholesterol Availability

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Transient lipid accumulation within hepatocytes preceding the peak proliferative process is a characteristic feature of liver regeneration. However, molecular mediators responsible for this lipid accumulation and their functions are not well defined. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c (SREBP-1c) are critical transcriptional factors that regulate lipid homeostasis in the liver. We hypothesized that SREBP-1c deficiency induced alterations of lipid metabolism may influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed in wild type C57BL/6J (WT) and <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice. The lipid contents in serum and liver were measured by enzymatic colorimetric methods. Hepatic lipid droplets were detected by Oil Red O staining and immunohistological staining. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and cellular proliferation was determined by real-time PCR and/or immunoblot. Hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration were assessed by BrdU staining and the weight of remanent liver lobes in Srebp-1c-/- mice, respectively. <b><i>Results:</i></b> <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice displayed reduced triglyceride and fatty acids but increased cholesterol in the liver before PH. In response to PH, hepatocellular DNA synthesis was elevated and cell cycle progression was prolonged in <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice, which was associated with enhanced liver regeneration. However, <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice had comparable triglyceride and fatty acid contents and expressions of related genes compared with WT mice during the liver regeneration. In contrast, SREBP-1c-deficiency-induced alteration of cholesterol metabolism was retained during the liver regeneration after PH. <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice exhibited higher cholesterol contents and enhanced expression of SREBP-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the liver than WT mice after PH. Moreover, downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol elimination was observed after PH in <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> SREBP-1c deficiency in mice did not interfere with triglyceride and fatty acid metabolism but was associated with significant changes in cholesterol profiles during liver regeneration after PH. These results suggest that increased hepatocellular cholesterol storage and cholesterol availability with the enhanced liver regeneration are identified in <i>Srebp-1c-/-</i> mice. This study also shows that providing requisite cholesterol levels to proliferating hepatocytes and keeping appropriate cholesterol metabolism are required for normal liver regeneration.