Supplementary Material for: Etoposide Combined with FLAG Salvage Therapy Is Effective in Multiple Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid leukemia

Managing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is often hampered by repeated failure to achieve complete remission as well as recurrent relapse that causes an emergent need for alternative salvage therapies. The efficacy of most salvage therapies is based on anthracycline combinations. In highly pretreated patients who are not eligible for anthracycline-based protocols therapeutic alternatives are limited. For this particular group we evaluated the efficacy and safety of fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG) in combination with etoposide (FLAG-Eto) in 36 patients. The complete remission rate (CR) was 25.7% with a median overall survival of 6 months (95% CI 4.5–7.7). The median disease-free survival for CR/CRi/MLFS (CR/CR with incomplete he­matological recovery/morphologic leukemia-free state) patients was 8 months (95% CI 0.6–15.5). The mortality rate on day 30 was 8% and increased on day 60 to 17%. Our results show meaningful anti-leukemic activity of the FLAG-Eto regimen with a moderate toxicity profile in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory AML patients enabling consolidating allogeneic stem cell transplantation.