Supplementary Material for: Exosomes from Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Activated Dendritic Cells Promote Th2 Differentiation through the OX40 Ligand

Objectives: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released from various inflammatory cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells, which have been implicated in the modulation of immune response in asthma. This study aimed to investigate whether exosomes from DCs activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a role in T-helper cell differentiation through the OX40 ligand (OX40L). Methods: Serum samples from patients with asthma were collected to measure the levels of OX40L, T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Exosomes were isolated from TSLP-activated DCs and co-cultured with CD4+ T cells. Western blot and ELISA assays were used to measure the levels of OX40L, IFN-γ, and IL-4 in DCs and CD4+ T cells. Flow cytometry was applied to detect Th1 and Th2 cells. Results: OX40L and IL-4 were increased and IFN-γ was decreased in serum from asthmatic patients compared with healthy controls. TSLP induced DCs to express OX40L in released exosomes, which could promote proliferation of CD4+ T cells, elevate the level of IL-4, and promote Th2 differentiation. Conclusion: Blockade of OX40L in DC-derived exosomes could inhibit exosome-mediated CD4+ T proliferation and Th2 differentiation.