Supplementary Material for: Expression Pattern of Smad4/GATA3 as a Predictor of Survival in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast

Background: Smad4 and GATA3 proteins are known prognostic markers in various cancers. Smad4 is a mediator linked to both tumour suppression and progression. GATA3 is a regulator of development and morphogenesis of the mammary gland. We assessed and compared the predictive performance of Smad4 and GATA3 for clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Methods: The combined expression pattern based on Smad4+/- and GATA3+/- was evaluated by immunostaining using breast cancer tissue microarray, and the relationships between protein expression and clinicopathological variables were analysed. Results: Smad4 expression was only associated with an ill-defined tumour border, whereas GATA3 was associated with several good prognostic factors. On analysis of combined markers, there was a significant difference in the expression of fascin (an important factor for cancer invasiveness) between the Smad4+/GATA3- and Smad4-/GATA3+ groups. Smad4+/GATA3- was correlated with worse clinicopathological parameters, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS), compared to Smad4-/GATA3+. Conclusion: Combined markers of Smad4/GATA3 showed a superior performance compared to single markers for predicting RFS and OS in patients with breast cancer.