Supplementary Material for: Familial 3-Way Balanced Translocation Causes 1q43→qter Loss and 10q25.2→qter Gain in a Severely Affected Male Toddler
Constitutional complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare events that typically involve 2 or more chromosomes with at least 3 breakpoints and can result in normal or abnormal phenotypes depending on whether they disturb the euchromatic neighborhood. Here, we report an unusual balanced CCR involving chromosomes 1, 9, and 10 that causes an unbalanced karyotype in a severely affected toddler. The CCR was initially reported as a maternal 2-way translocation but was reclassified as a 3-way translocation after a microarray analysis of the propositus revealed the involvement of another chromosome not identified by G-banding in his phenotypically normal mother. FISH assays on maternal metaphase cells confirmed that the 1qter region of der(1) was translocated to der(10), whereas the 10qter segment was translocated to der(9), which in turn donated a segment to der(1). Subsequently, this CCR was also identified in her phenotypically normal father (the patient's grandfather). Thus, the patient inherited the previously unreported pathogenic combination of der(1) with a loss of 1q43→qter (including AKT3, ZBTB18, HNRNPU, and SMYD3) and der(9) with a gain of 10q25.2→qter (including FGFR2), leading to a compound phenotype with key features of the 1q43→qter deletion and distal 10q trisomy syndromes. Our observations suggest that the loss of SMYD3 accounts for cardiac defects in a subset of patients. Moreover, due to recurrent miscarriages in this family, our findings allowed improved genetic counseling.