Supplementary Material for: Familial Influences on Mismatch Negativity and Its Association with Plasma Glutamate Level: A Magnetoencephalographic Study in Twins

Mismatch negativity (MMN) or its magnetic counterpart (magnetic mismatch negativity; MMNm) is regarded as a promising biomarker for schizophrenia. Previous electroencephalographic studies of MMN have demonstrated a moderate-to-high heritability for MMN amplitudes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent glutamatergic neurotransmission is implicated in MMN generation. We hypothesized that the differences between identical twins in MMNm variables might be associated with differences in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Thirty-three pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 10 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins underwent MMNm recording. The MMNm in response to tone duration changes, tone frequency changes, and phonemic changes was recorded using 204-channel magnetoencephalography. Of these, 26 MZ and 7 DZ twin pairs underwent blood sampling for determination of plasma amino acid levels. MMNm peak strength showed relatively high correlations in both MZ and DZ twin pairs. The differences in MMNm latencies tended to correlate with the differences in plasma amino acid levels within MZ pairs, while no significant correlation was observed after the Bonferroni correction. We observed a familial trait in MMNm strength. The differences in MMN latency in MZ twins might be influenced by changes in glutamate levels and glutamate-glutamine cycling; however, the results need to be replicated.