Supplementary Material for: Fetoscopic Release of Amniotic Bands Causing Limb Constriction: Case Series and Review of the Literature

The aim of this study was to review the perioperative complication rates and neonatal outcomes after fetoscopic release of amniotic bands that caused bilateral limb constrictions. We present 5 cases of limb constriction by amniotic bands occurring spontaneously or following fetoscopic surgery and also include a review of 21 previously published cases. The cases were analyzed for indication, surgical technique, and postoperative follow-up. In our population and the literature, the majority of the children acquired a functional limb (75%), with few perioperative complications (15%). Fetal morbidity was mainly linked to the consequences of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (38.4%) and preterm birth (34.7 GW). The mortality rate was low (7.7%). This review only describes amniotic bands causing limb constriction, and illustrates that fetoscopic surgery for their release is technically feasible with an acceptable perioperative complication rate. However, the 75% success rate is very likely to be an overestimation of the true success rate. In view of these observations we cannot recommend treatment for cases where the fetus has been extensively affected by the bands. We believe, however, that we could consider this technique for a fraction of amniotic band syndrome cases isolated to the limb constrictions. This kind of surgery should be proposed as a potential treatment for amniotic band syndrome.