Supplementary Material for: Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Idiopathic Short Stature and First-Year Response to Growth Hormone Treatment

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> The term idiopathic short stature (ISS) describes short stature of unknown, but likely polygenic, etiology. This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with the ISS phenotype, and with growth response to supplemental GH. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Using a case-control analysis we compared the prevalence of “tall” versus “short” alleles at 52 polymorphic loci (17 in growth-related candidate genes, 35 identified in prior genome-wide association studies of adult height) in 94 children with ISS followed in the Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study, versus 143 controls from the Fels Longitudinal Study. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Four variants were nominally associated with ISS using a genotypic model, confirmed by a simultaneous confident inference approach: compared with controls children with ISS had lower odds of “tall” alleles (odds ratio, 95% CI) for <i>GHR</i> (0.52, 0.29–0.96); rs2234693/ESR1 (0.50, 0.25–0.98); rs967417/BMP2 (0.39, 0.17–0.93), and rs4743034/ZNF462 (0.40, 0.18–0.89). Children with ISS also had lower odds of the “tall” allele (A) at the <i>IGFBP3</i> –202 promoter polymorphism (rs2855744; 0.40, 0.20–0.80) in the simultaneous confident inference analysis. A significant association with 1st-year height SD score increase during GH treatment was observed with rs11205277, located near 4 known genes: <i>MTMR11</i>,<i> SV2A</i>,<i> HIST2H2AA3</i>,<i></i> and<i> SF3B4</i>; the latter, in which heterozygous mutations occur in Nager acrofacial dysostosis, appears the most relevant gene. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> In children with ISS we identified associations with “short” alleles at a number of height-related loci. In addition, a polymorphic variant located near <i>SF3B4</i> was associated with the GH treatment response in our cohort. The findings in our small study warrant further investigation.