Supplementary Material for: Gintonin Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Hippocampal Senescence by Improving Long-Term Hippocampal Potentiation, Neurogenesis, and Cognitive Functions

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Ginseng has been used to improve brain function and increase longevity. However, little is known about the ingredients of ginseng and molecular mechanisms of its anti-brain aging effects. Gintonin is a novel exogenous ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand; LPA and LPA1 receptors are involved in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. D-galactose (D-gal) is used to induce brain ­aging in animal models because long-term treatment with D-gal facilitates hippocampal aging in experimental adult animals by decreasing hippocampal neurogenesis and inducing learning and memory dysfunction. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To investigate the protective effects of gintonin on D-gal-induced hippocampal senescence, impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP), and memory dysfunction. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Brain hippocampal aging was induced by D-gal administration (150 mg/kg/day, s.c.; 10 weeks). From the 7th week, gintonin (50 or 100 mg/kg/day, per os) was co-administered with D-gal for 4 weeks. We performed histological analyses, LTP measurements, and object location test. <b><i>Results:</i></b>  Co-administration of gintonin ameliorated D-gal-induced reductions in hippocampal Ki67-immunoreactive proliferating cells, doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts, 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine-incorporating NeuN-immunoreactive mature neurons, and LPA1 receptor expression. Co-administration of gintonin in D-gal-treated mice increased the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In addition, co-administration of gintonin in D-gal-treated mice enhanced LTP and restored the cognitive functions compared with those in mice treated with D-gal only. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> These results show that gintonin administration restores D-gal-induced memory deficits by enhancing hippocampal LPA1 receptor expression, LTP, and neurogenesis. Finally, the present study shows that gintonin exerts anti-brain aging effects that are responsible for alleviating brain aging-related dysfunction.