Supplementary Material for: Global mRNA and Long Non-Coding RNA Expression in the Placenta and White Adipose Tissue of Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy

Background/Aims: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, but the mechanisms underlying the disorders remain unclear. The study aimed to identify mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) profiles in placenta and gonadal fat of pregnant mice fed a high-fat diet and to investigate the transcripts and pathways involved in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: Deep and broad transcriptome profiling was performed to assess the expression of mRNAs and lncRNAs in placenta and gonadal fat from 3 mice fed an HFD and chow during pregnancy. Then, differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The function of the differentially expressed mRNAs was determined by pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses, and the physical or functional relationships between the lncRNAs and the corresponding mRNAs were determined. Results: Our study revealed that 82 mRNAs and 52 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in the placenta of mice fed an HFD during pregnancy, and 202 mRNAs and 120 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in gonadal fat. GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses revealed differentially expressed mRNAs of placenta were closely related to extracellular matrix interactions, digestion, adhesion, and metabolism, whereas the differentially expressed mRNAs in adipose tissue were related to metabolic and insulin signalling pathways. The gene network demonstrated that Actg2, Cnfn, Muc16, Serpina3k, NONMMUT068202, and NONMMUT068203, were the core of the network in placental tissue, and the genes Tkt, Acss2, and Elovl6 served as the core of the network in gonadal fat tissue. Conclusion: These newly identified key genes and pathways in mice might provide valuable information regarding the pathogenesis of GDM and might be used to improve early diagnosis, prevention, drug design, and clinical treatment.