Supplementary Material for: HPV Infection Downregulates the Expression of Autophagy-Related Genes in Condylomata Acuminata

Background: Condylomata acuminata are benign anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with a high recurrence rate. Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining internal environmental stability. However, the role of autophagy regulation in the anogenital warts caused by HPV infection remains unknown. Objective: A multigroup case-control study was designed to identify the autophagy gene fingerprint involved in anogenital warts arising from infections with different HPV genotypes. Methods: Human autophagy PCR arrays were performed on the initial 18 participants grouped by their different HPV genotypes for gene expression-profiling analysis. The negative control was skin samples collected during plastic surgery on the chest from a group of individuals who showed none of the clinical symptoms or evidence of HPV infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to validate the microarray results in another 24 individuals. Results: Out of 84 genes involved in autophagy, different autophagic responses were found among the 29 genes that encode autophagy machinery components, and expression levels of 13 of these genes were downregulated. Finally, we verified that the expression levels of 2 key genes that participate in the formation of autophagosomes, ATG3 and ­BECLIN1, were downregulated in the HPV infection groups independently of genotype compared with the control group. Conclusions: These findings showed that HPV infection downregulated the expression of ATGs in CA. Additionally, there were no differences in the expression of ATGs between the different HPV genotype infection groups. This study provided new insights into the autophagic response to HPV infection.