Supplementary Material for: Height Gain and Safety Outcomes in Growth Hormone-Treated Children with Idiopathic Short Stature: Experience from a Prospective Observational Study

Background/Objectives: Growth hormone (GH) treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS) received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2003. We assessed height gain and safety in 2,450 children with ISS treated with GH in US clinical practice. Methods: Short-term height gain, near-adult height (NAH), and safety outcomes were investigated using Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study data. Results: Compared to children with isolated idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), those with ISS were shorter at baseline but had similar age and GH dose. Mean ± SD height SD score (SDS) increase was similar for ISS and IGHD, with 0.6 ± 0.3 (first), 0.4 ± 0.3 (second), 0.3 ± 0.3 (third), and 0.1 ± 0.3 (fourth year) for ISS. Girls with ISS (27% of subjects) were younger and shorter than boys but had similar height gain over time. At NAH in the ISS group (n = 467), mean ± SD age, GH duration, and height SDS were 17.3 ± 2.3 years, 4.6 ± 2.7 years, and –1.2 ± 0.9, respectively. Height gain from baseline was 1.1 ± 1.0 SDS and was greater for boys than girls (1.2 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 0.9), but boys were treated longer (5.1 ± 2.8 vs. 3.6 ± 2.5 years). Adverse events were reported for 24% with ISS versus 20% with IGHD – most were common childhood conditions or previously reported in GH-treated patients. Conclusions: GH-treated children with ISS achieved substantial height gain, similar to patients with IGHD. Fewer GH-treated girls were enrolled than boys, but with similar height SDS gain over time. No ISS-specific safety issues were identified. Thus, GH treatment of ISS appears to have a safety/effectiveness profile similar to that of IGHD.