Supplementary Material for: High-Dose Lovastatin for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of the Phase I Dose Escalation Neuroprotection with Statin Therapy for Acute Recovery Trial (NeuSTART)
datasetposted on 16.07.2009 by Elkind M.S.V., Sacco R.L., MacArthur R.B., Peerschke E., Neils G., Andrews H., Stillman J., Corporan T., Leifer D., Liu R.
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Background: Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (‘statins’) reduce the neuronal injury in dose-dependent fashion in rodent stroke models. We sought to determine whether lovastatin at doses above those currently approved can be administered safely within 24 h after an acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We conducted a phase 1B dose-finding study using an adaptive design novel to stroke trials, the continual reassessment method, to find the highest tolerated dose of lovastatin. Planned doses were 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. The primary safety outcomes were myotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The model was calibrated to select a dose causing 7–13% toxicity. Results: We enrolled 33 patients (16 men/17 women, age range 23–82 years). Three patients were treated at 1 mg/kg, 10 at 3 mg/kg, 12 at 6 mg/kg, and 8 at 8 mg/kg. Thirty of the 33 patients (90.9%) completed at least 11 of 12 doses. Two patients at the 6-mg/kg dose level experienced transient mild elevations in transaminases without clinical sequelae. After an initial dose reduction, the dose was re-escalated to 8 mg/kg, and no further patients reached safety outcomes. No clinical liver disease, myopathy, or creatine phosphokinase elevations occurred. The final model-based toxicity at 8 mg/kg was 13%; no patient was treated at 10 mg/kg. Conclusions: Lovastatin at doses above those currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration is feasible for 3 days after an acute ischemic stroke and the maximum tolerated dose is estimated to be 8 mg/kg/day. Further randomized studies are warranted to confirm its safety and to demonstrate its efficacy in improving functional outcomes after stroke.