Supplementary Material for: High Pulse-Wave Velocity Defines a Very High Cardiovascular Risk Cohort of Dialysis Patients under Age 60
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a high risk of cardiovascular mortality (CVM). In patients with ESRD, arterial stiffness increases at an earlier age when compared to the general population and this contributes to the overall risk of cardiovascular mortality. The main objective of this study was to clarify the interplay between age and cardiovascular alterations in ESRD. Methods: Prospective, observational cohort study initiated in April 1987 until the end of 1998 with events recorded until the end of the year 2000 at the F.H. Manhes Hospital Center, Fleury-Mérogis (in the Paris/Ile de France area). Results: The study population consisted of 278 ESRD patients undergoing dialysis therapy. The mean ± SD age was 53 ± 16 years. The mean pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was ∼11 m/s, with ∼37% of patients having a PWV >12 m/s. During the follow-up period, 91 patients died from CV causes. PWV >12 m/s was associated with CVM in the unadjusted model but lost its prognostic value in patients >60 years (p for interaction = 0.008). In patients ≤60 years, PWV was found to be a strong and independent predictor of CVM with hazards ratio (95% CI) of 14.382 (7.120-29.047), p < 0.001, and it improved the prognostic reclassification of a model containing well-established prognostic variables. According to multivariable regression analysis, aortic PWV was strongly associated with age (R2 = 0.37, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A PWV >12 m/s provides important prognostic information in ESRD patients under 60 years of age, whereas in older patients, its prognostic relevance is lost. These findings are of critical relevance for early intervention guidance and trial end-point/treatment effect interpretation.