Supplementary Material for: Importance of Toll-Like Receptor 9 in Host Defense against M1T1 Group A Streptococcus Infections

Timely recognition and elimination of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) by innate immunity is crucial to control infection. The intracellular pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) promotes macrophage hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels, oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in response to GAS. TLR9 contributes to GAS clearance in vivo in both localized cutaneous and systemic infection models.