Supplementary Material for: Improvement of Spinosad Production upon Utilization of Oils and Manipulation of β-Oxidation in a High-Producing Saccharopolyspora spinosa Strain

Spinosad, a member of polyketide-derived macrolides produced in the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa, has been developed as a broad-spectrum and effective insecticide. The β-oxidation pathway could be an important source of building blocks for the biosynthesis of spinosad, thus the effect of vegetable oils on the production of spinosad in a high-yield strain was investigated. The spinosad production increased significantly with the addition of strawberry seed oil (511.64 mg/L) and camellia oil (520.07 mg/L) compared to the control group without oil (285.76 mg/L) and soybean oil group (398.11 mg/L). It also revealed that the addition of oils would affect the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, precursor supply, and oxidative stress. The genetically engineered strain, in which fadD1 and fadE genes of Streptomyces coelicolor were inserted, produced spinosad up to 784.72 mg/L in the medium containing camellia oil, while a higher spinosad production level (843.40 mg/L) was detected with the addition of 0.01 mM of thiourea.