Supplementary Material for: In vitro and in vivo Characterization of a New Organic Nitrate Hybrid Drug Covalently Bound to Pioglitazone
2014-06-07T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Background/Aims: Organic nitrates represent a group of nitrovasodilators that are clinically used for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. The new compound CLC-3000 is an aminoethyl nitrate (AEN) derivative of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent combining the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist activity of pioglitazone with the NO-donating activity of the nitrate moiety. Methods: In vitro and in vivo characterization was performed by isometric tension recording, platelet function, bleeding time and detection of oxidative stress. Results: In vitro, CLC-3000 displayed more potent vasodilation than pioglitazone alone or classical nitrates. In vitro, some effects on oxidative stress parameters were observed. Authentic AEN or the AEN-containing linker CLC-1275 displayed antiaggregatory effects. In vivo treatment with CLC-3000 for 7 days did neither induce endothelial dysfunction nor nitrate tolerance nor oxidative stress. Acute or chronic administration of AEN increased the tail vein bleeding time in mice. Conclusion: In summary, the results of these studies demonstrate that CLC-3000 contains a vasodilative and antithrombotic activity that is not evident with pioglitazone alone, and that 7 days of exposure in vivo showed no typical signs of nitrate tolerance, endothelial dysfunction or other safety concerns in Wistar rats.