Supplementary Material for: Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE) among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.